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IEEE Writing and Citation Style

How to Publish with IEEE Presentation

IEEE Citation Style Documentation


Reference Managers

Reference managers help keep your references organized and format your paper. Zotero and Mendeley both have a style sheet for IEEE Citation Style and are free to use. Since Zotero was developed at George Mason University, you have free unlimited space on their server.

For more information, go to the tutorial and guide below.

What is a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

Find out what a DOI is and about some places you might find them. Video by Benedictine University Library (1.15 min.). A transcript is available after the video.

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If your browser is compatible, try the video, What is a DOI, on YouTube.


A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of letters and numbers that identify an electronic document. The DOI for a document is permanent even if the URL where the item was first found has changed. The DOI is stable and permanent making electronic documents easier to locate. Here is an example of a DOI [doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0838].

The location of the DOI can depend on many things. Here are some places to look for the DOI: On the first page of the electronic journal article, on the database landing page for an article, or in the citation generated by the database.

If you have a DOI and want to see what it represents, use Cross Ref, a free DOI lookup on the web at

Format of Author Names in the Reference List

Author names are as first initial, middle initial (if available), then last name. If there are more than 6 authors, list first author's name, then et al.

  • A. B. Smith
  • A. B. Smith and C. D. Doe
  • A. B. Smith, C. D. Doe, and E. F. Jones
  • A. B. Smith et al.