Many learning theories have been posited by learning theorists. The people listed below are commonly known in the field of learning theory.
1. Diverging (Feel and watch) - gathers information and use imagination to solve problems
2. Assimilating (think and watch) - a concise logical approach to learning wants clear explanations
3. Converging (Think and do) - solve problems and find practical solutions
4. Accommodating (feel and do) - hands-on learning
Albert Bandura ties behaviorist learning theories such as classical conditioning and operant condition to the learners observation of people's behavior in certain situations and meditational processes which focus in how cognitive factors are involved in learning. Focuses include:
In 1986, Bandura changed the name of his theory from Social Learning Theory to Social Cognitive Theory based on his belief that it better describes how learning occurs.
Lev Vygotsky's theory is one of the foundations of Constructivism. He sees three major themes.
1. Social interaction is fundamental to cognitive development. People learn first on a social level and later on an individual level.
2. The More Knowledgeable Other - Someone who has more knowledge and ability about a specific task.
3. Zone of Proximal Development - This is the zone in which learning occurs. It is tied to a person's ability to perform a task with guidance or peer collaboration vs. on their own.
Jean Lave states that learning is generally unintentional. It occurs through activity, context and culture without out these learning does not occur. Learners are part of a "community of practice" Situated Learning is often tied to Vygotsky's theory of learning through social development
Jack Mezirow states that learning induces far-reaching change in learners. Learning experiences which have significant impact affect later learning as well. He believes critical reflection is to be pivotal to learning. It is tied to rational discourse which allows the learner to explore their world views, and articulate them to others.
Jean Piaget's theory of Constructivism emphasizes the importance of the active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves. Students are thought to use background knowledge and concepts to assist them in their acquisition of novel information. It is based on the premise that learning occurs as we reflect on our experiences and use them to construct our understanding of the world in which we live.