Basic APA Format
Your paper should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
For specific examples of how to create in-text citations use the Purdue Owl APA Citations: The Basics
The tabs in this box give examples of the proper way to cite references in APA format. Examples were taken from the following resources:
If you need additional help try the following chart provided by APA: How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing. This handy table explains to cite a reference in APA format when parts of a reference are missing
If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is provided, you must include it in your citation. If a DOI is not provided use the journal's url. See examples below:
Where can you find the doi?
If a journal article does have a DOI, you must provide the journal's url.
To find the journal URL, do one of the following:
The examples below give examples of how to cite a book, book chapter, and an edited book in APA format.
Cite a book in APA format
NOTE: If a book has a doi, you must include the DOI at the end of the reference.
Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
The examples below give examples of how to government documents in APA format and some things to consider when citing:
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Government Name. Name of
Government Agency. (Year). Title: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). Place of
Publication: Publisher. Retrieved from: URL
Government Document with Author
How to cite test reviews or entire tests from the Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests in Print Database and in print.
|Twentieth||2017||TJ.F. Carlson, K.F. Geisinger, & J.L. Jonson|
|Nineteenth||2014||TJ.F. Carlson, K.F. Geisinger, & J.L. Jonson|
|Eighteenth||2010||R.A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, and K. F. Geisinger|
|Seventeeth||2007||K. F. Geisinger, R. A. Spies, J. F. Carlson, & B. S. Plake|
|Sixteenth||2005||B. Plake, J. C. Impara & R. Spies|
|Fifteenth||2003||B. Plake, J. C. Impara & R. Spies|
|Fourteenth||2001||B. Plake & J. C. Impara|
|Thirteenth||1998||J. C. Impara & B. Plake|
|Twelfth||1995||J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara|
|Eleventh||1992||J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley|
|Tenth||1989||J. C. Conoley & J. J. Kramer|
|Ninth||1985||J. V. Mitchell|
The basic format to use when citing a web page is listed below, by type of web page.
The basic format when citing a web page is: Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL
What is included in the [Format description] field?
[Web file] for YouTube videos<
[Online forum Comment] for Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group
Need Additional Assistance - Try the following link or contact the Mason Writing Center.
The examples below give the basic when citing a video/dvd in APA format. NOTE: List the primary contributors in the author position. Primary contributors include the Director, Producer, etc.
Primary contributor. (Date). Title [Format]. Available from url
Do you need a specialized citation style beyond APA, Chicago, or MLA? Check out Zotero's Style Repository for specialized formats.
The Libraries provide workshops to get you started using Zotero. Check the workshop calendar for times and locations.
Not a fan of Zotero? Check out the Purdue Online Writing Lab for assistance with citing APA, MLA and Chicago.